Review questions for module 2

Chapter 3: Digestion: From Meals to Molecules


 1). How are atoms, molecules, and cells related to one another?

 2). How do the endocrine and nervous systems interact with the digestive system?

 3). What happens during digestion and absorption?

 4). Which organs make up the gastrointestinal tract?

 5). What are mucosal cells?

 6). How are enzymes important for digestion and absorption?

 7). What are the functions of the stomach?

 8). How does food move through the GI tract?

 9). How do the villi and microvilli aid absorption?

 10). Why must some nutrients be absorbed by means of active transport?

 11). Why is the immune function of the the GI tract so important?

 12). How can food allergy symptoms be prevented?

 13). What foods should be avoided by people with heartburn? By people with gallstones?

 14). When can ulcers be treated with antibiotics?

  15). Where does blood go after it leaves the lungs?

  16). Why is it not a good idea to exercise after eating a large meal?

 17). What is the role of the lymphtic system in nutrient absorption?

 18). What wastes are excreted by the kidney? The lungs?


Chapter 4: Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers


1. What is the difference between a whole-grain product and one made with a refined grain?

 2. How do enriched grains differ from whole grains?

 3. Why are foods high in added refined sugars said to contribute empty calories?

 4. Which monosaccharide circulates in our blood?

 5. What is glycogen?

 6. How do the bonds that link the sugar units in starch differ from the bonds linking the units in fiber?

 7. Which type of fiber is plentiful in beans?

 8. What steps are involved in starch digestion?

 9. What foods are good sources of calcium for someone with lactose intolerance?

 10. Why are carbohydrates that cannot be digested important for health?

 11. How does fiber affect glycemic response?

 12. Why is it important to keep blood glucose levels in the normal range

 13. How do insulin and glucagon affect blood glucose levels?

 14. How is glucose broken down to yield ATP when oxygen is present?

 15. Why is carbohydrate said to spare protein?

 16. What health conditions are common in people with uncontrolled diabetes?

 17. Why does frequent carbohydrate snacking promote dental caries?

 18. When does a low-carbohydrate diet promote weight loss?

 19. How does fiber benefit colon health?

 20. How does the American diet compare with recommendations for fiber and added sugar?

 21. What carbohydrate sources are recommended by MyPyramid?

 22. Where on a food label can you find information about added sugars?

Chapter 5: Lipids: Fats, Phospholipids, and Sterols

1. How does the fat in ice cream contribute to its appeal?

 2. What are some invisible sources of fat in the diet?

 3. How have the sources of fat in the American diet changed over the last four decades?

 4. What is the structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

 5. Where are most phospholipids found in the body?

 6. Why is cholesterol not a dietary essential?

 7. Which is higher in cholesterol: a tablespoon of peanut butter or an egg?

 8. How does bile help in the digestion and absorption of lipids?

 9. Why are lipoproteins needed to transport lipids?

 10. What is the primary function of LDL cholesterol?

 11. What is the function of adipose tissue?

 12. How can eating fish regularly help maintain a healthy blood pressure?

 13. How are fatty acids used to produce energy?

 14. What happens to dietary fat after it has been absorbed?

 15. Why does a deficiency of essential fatty acids cause health problems?

 16. How is oxidized LDL cholesterol involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque?

  17. What are 3 dietary factors that increase the risk of heart disease?

 18Why might eating fat increase the number of calories you consume?

 19. How much fat is recommended in a healthy diet?

 20. Why is fatty fish a healthier choice than fatty beef?

 21. Which food groups contribute the most foods that are high in saturated fat and


 22. How can labels help identify foods that are low in cholesterol and saturated fat?

Which is higher in protein, an egg or a cup of rice?

Chapter 6: Proteins and Amino Acids

 1. Which is higher in protein, an egg or a cup of rice?

 2. What nutrients are plentiful in meat and milk? In grains and legumes?

 3. Which chemical element is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or lipid ?

 4. Why must only some of the 20 amino acids that the body needs to make proteins be consumed in the diet?

 5. What determines the shape of a protein?

 6. How does denaturation affect the function of proteins?

 7. Where does the chemical digestion of protein begin?

 8. Why might supplementing one amino acid reduce the absorption of other amino acids?

 9. Why does protein synthesis stop when the supply of an amino acid is limited?

 10. How does the body know in what order to assemble the amino acids when making a protein?

 11. What types of proteins help regulate body functions?

 12. When is protein used as an energy source?

 13. Why do children with marasmus appear more emaciated than those with kwashiorkor?

 14. Why is protein energy malnutrition more common in children than in adults?

 15. Who should be concerned about excessive protein intake?

 16. How can allergic reactions to food be avoided?

 17. What circumstances result in a positive nitrogen balance?

 18. Why is the quality of animal protein considered to be higher than that of plant protein?

 19. What protein source could you serve with pasta that would complement the wheat protein in the pasta?

 20. Why are vegans at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency?