Art Appreciation (ARTS 1301)

Instructor: Melissa Walter

Final Review

1.

Perfecting the photographic process, Louis Daguerre, in Le Boulevard du Temple, was able to include __________ in his photographs.

 

a.

buildings

b.

street scenes

c.

people

d.

motion

 

 

2.

The artist of Porch, Provincetown, known primarily for color photographs of the natural environment, is:

 

a.

Eliot Porter.

b.

Sonia Landy Sheridan.

c.

Edward Steichen.

d.

Joel Meyerowitz.

 

 

3.

Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is/was in:

 

a.

Great Salt Lake, Utah.

b.

Lake Superior, Michigan.

c.

Lake Geneva, Switzerland.

d.

Wonderlake, Illinois.

 

 

4.

Still images from the film Battleship Potemkin demonstrate the montage technique of one of the great innovators of film editing. The Russian filmmaker is:

 

a.

Vladimir Tatlin.

b.

Lucas Samaras.

c.

Sergei Eisenstein.

d.

D. W. Griffith.

 

 

5.

The artist of TV Bra for Living Sculpture is best known for expanding the traditional limitations of artistic media by incorporating video and electronic media into his/her artwork. The artist is:

 

a.

Nam June Paik.

b.

Jerry Uelsmann.

c.

Sonia Landy Sheridan.

d.

Eliot Porter.

 

 

6.

Eadward Muybridge's photographs, like Annie G., Cantering, Saddled are early examples of artists:

 

a.

perfecting the medium of photography.

b.

capturing an object in motion.

c.

using black-and-white photography.

d.

using projected motion pictures.

 

 

7.

Sebastiao Salgado's Four Figures in the Desert, Korem, Ethiopia is a good example of __________ photography.

 

a.

artistic

b.

documentary

c.

abstract

d.

a & b

 

 

8.

Which of these artistic movements does Jerry N. Uelsmann's Untitled have the most in common with?

 

a.

Dadaism

b.

surrealism

c.

abstract expressionism

d.

impressionism

 

 

9.

The techniques employed by Jerry N. Uelsmann's in photographs like Untitled can best be described as:

 

a.

impasto painting.

b.

digital manipulation.

c.

collage.

 

 

10.

The drawings by William Cameron Menzies (p. 275) are examples of a vital part of the film-making process called ___________.

 

a.

action photos

b.

dailys

c.

storyboards

d.

frames

 

 

11.

Which of these best describes Annie Leibovitz's photograph of Karen Finley?

 

a.

it is modeled on a famous late-19th century photograph by Edgar Degas

b.

it utilizes the complementary colors of red and green to enhance the composition and "feel" of the photo

c.

it presents an aggressively feminist public figure in a private, intimate moment

d.

all of the above

 

 

12.

The subject matter of An-My Lê's Small Wars (ambush I) involves a group of men who meet regularly meet to re-enact the Vietnam War. What is the content?

 

a.

it is a glorification of the conflict

b.

the artist, born in Vietnam, is calling into question the legacy of the conflict, particularly in popular literature and film

c.

the artist, born in the United States, is memorializing the American soldiers who died in the conflict

d.

a & b

 

 

13.

The device invented in the sixteenth century as a means of capturing and fixing images from the natural world is called:

 

a.

film noir.

b.

camera vérité.

c.

praxiscope.

d.

camera obscura.

 

 

14.

Despite the success of the daguerreotype, the process had its drawbacks (p. 256), primarily:

 

a.

the image could not be reproduced.

b.

colors were not true to life.

c.

it reproduced poorly in books.

d.

the cost of the apparatus.

 

 

15.

The wet-plate collodion (p. 259) photographic process was introduced by a British sculptor named:

 

a.

Herschel Walker.

b.

William Henry Fox Talbot.

c.

Margaret Cameron.

d.

Frederick Archer.

 

 

16.

Nam June Paik's TV Bra for Living Sculpture (p. 277) attempted to:

 

a.

simulate trashy films of Hollywood.

b.

make a careful political statement.

c.

embarrass his audience.

d.

humanize technology.

 

 

17.

Sound was introduced into film (p. 273) in the year:

 

a.

1959.

b.

1927.

c.

1900.

d.

1939.

 

 

18.

D. W. Griffith was the first great master of _______, (p. 271)the process of arranging the sequences of a film.

 

a.

traveling shots

b.

flashback

c.

montage

d.

editing

 

 

19.

In filmmaking, each unbroken, continuous sequence of movie frames (p. 271) with the camera still rolling is called a:

 

a.

take.

b.

shot.

c.

roll.

d.

pan.

 

 

20.

The first American film to fully utilize "every known trick of the filmmaker's trade" (p. 270) resulting in a masterful work was:

 

a.

The Wizard of Oz.

b.

Fantasia.

c.

Citizen Kane.

d.

The Jazz Singer.

 

 

21.

What was the first projected motion picture?

 

a.

Cinematographe Lumiere

b.

Daguerreotype

c.

Citizen Kane

d.

The Birth of a Nation

 

 

22.

Who developed the "zone system" in photography?

 

a.

Louis Daguerre

b.

William Henry Fox Talbot

c.

Ansel Adams and Fred Archer

d.

Henri Cartier-Bresson

 

 

23.

________ is defined as the size of the opening in the lens when exposing a photograph to light.

 

a.

ISO

b.

Aperture

c.

Zone system

d.

Burning

 

 

24.

Dodging and burning are darkroom processes by which the photographer can manipulate the ___________in a photo.

 

a.

texture

b.

color

c.

value

d.

composition

 

 

25.

Ansel Adams, in Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, uses _______, a darkroom process which can alter the value in a photograph.

 

a.

dodging and burning

b.

zone system

c.

digital manipulation

d.

a & b

 

 

26.

The idea of film as art flourished after World War 2 with the likes of auteurs such as ___________.

 

a.

Charlie Chaplin and the Three Stooges

b.

Federico Fellini and Ingmar Bergman

c.

Steven Spielberg and George Lucas

d.

Burt Reynolds and Loni Anderson

 

 

27.

What is unique about the 1960-70s performances of Trisha Brown's dance company?

 

a.

they danced in the nude

b.

they danced underwater

c.

they danced on walls while suspended from the ceiling

d.

they incorporated the latest cutting-edge technology

 

 

28.

Robert Rauschenberg's performance art can be said to be disjunctive and almost random. Which of these best describes the real value in his performances?

 

a.

they give the "players" an opportunity to get a lot of exercise

b.

they are based in traditional art practices

c.

they challenge our senses and our expectations about the nature of art itself

d.

they involve casts of thousands

 

 

29.

When and where were the earliest photographs developed?

 

a.

in 20th century U.S.

b.

in 15th century Italy

c.

in China, 2000 years ago

d.

in 1839 in France and England

 

 

30.

How does "camera obscura" translate, and how does it differ from contemporary photography?

 

a.

bright space; it is not as realistic

b.

obscured view; it reflected but did not "capture" the image

c.

dark room; it is not as realistic

d.

dark room; it reflected but did not "capture" the image

 

 

31.

Nam June Paik was an innovator in which of these media?

 

a.

oil painting

b.

stainless steel sculpture

c.

video sculpture

d.

ready-mades

 

 

32.

What 19th century photographer is responsible for developing the "calotype" process, which is the basis for modern photography?

 

a.

Louis Daguerre

b.

Richard Beard

c.

Alfred Stieglitz

d.

William Henry Fox Talbot

 

 

33.

Maidens and Stewards, a Parthenon fragment of the Panathenaic Procession, illustrates a _______, or sculptural band, often used by the Greeks to embellish their architecture.

 

a.

high-relief

b.

free-standing

c.

frieze

d.

statue in-the-round

 

 

34.

Ancient Egyptian stone funerary figures, such as King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and His Queen, Khamerenebty II (fig. 370; p. 292), were carved to bear the _______, or individual spirit of the deceased into the eternity of the afterlife.

 

a.

ka

b.

kouros

c.

santeros

d.

osiris

 

 

35.

Created entirely from _______, Case of Bottles by the California Funk artist Robert Arneson illustrates the modeling sculptural process.

 

a.

wax

b.

clay

c.

plastic

d.

cloth

 

 

36.

Contingent is a typical work by the artist:

 

a.

Alice Aycock.

b.

Eva Hesse.

c.

Robert Smithson.

d.

Walter de Maria.

 

 

37.

The Tomb of Emperor Shih Huang shows an extraordinary grouping of what type of work?

 

a.

Stonework

b.

Clay Pottery

c.

Terra Cotta

d.

Ceramics

 

 

38.

Richard Serra's The Matter of Time is:

 

a.

a traditional monumental sculpture.

b.

a series of steel sculptures that asks us to consider how we move through the space of the piece and the time we take doing it.

c.

a good example of installation art.

d.

b & c.

 

 

39.

Which of these statements is NOT true about the Qing Dynasty masterpiece Yu the Great Taming the Waters?

 

a.

it is carved into the largest piece of marble ever quarried

b.

it is a remarkable example of high-relief sculpture

c.

its subject matter is the story of a mythical emperor who tamed a catastrophic flood in the 2nd millennium BCE

d.

its subject matter is the story of the unification of China under Shih Huang-Ti in the 3rd century BCE

 

 

40.

Which of these processes best describes the one used by Rodin in sculpting The Burghers of Calais?

 

a.

it was cast in one piece from a wax model

b.

it was cast in several pieces and then welded together

c.

it was modeled with clay

d.

it was carved out a single block of marble

 

 

41.

The Yoruba Display Piece (p. 303) produced for an oba, or king, is meant to reflect the king's power and _______.

 

a.

his wealth

b.

the power of the community's women and the king's incompleteness without them

c.

the history of the community

d.

the events that led to his ascent

 

 

42.

What do Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty and Great Serpent Mound have in common?

 

a.

they were done in the same general time period

b.

they are both examples of installation art

c.

they are both earthworks, purposeful modifications of landscape

d.

they were done by the same artist

 

 

43.

Great Serpent Mound from the Hopewell culture of North America is an example of ____________, which has a long and far-reaching history.

 

a.

installation art

b.

earthworks

c.

ritual architecture

d.

contemporary art

 

 

44.

The Egyptian limestone carving, Senwosret I led by Atum to Amun-Re (p. 287), is an example of ________________sculpture.

 

a.

in-the round

b.

high relief

c.

low relief

d.

installation

 

 

45.

The Greek Kouros (p. 292) illustrates the idea of shifting or counter positioning weight around the axis of the spine in figurative sculpture. This pose is called:

 

a.

chiaroscuro.

b.

perspective.

c.

contrapposto.

d.

pose tolerance.

 

 

46.

Auguste Rodin's The Burghers of Calais (p. 300) is a remarkable example of which type of sculpture?

 

a.

in-the-round

b.

bas-relief

c.

assemblage

d.

All of the above.

 

 

47.

Part of the large-scale outdoor environments that occurred in the 1960s, works such as Nancy Holt's Sun Tunnels (p. 312) are generally referred to as:

 

a.

assemblages.

b.

earthworks.

c.

constructions.

d.

new image art.

 

 

48.

In Sky Cathedral (p. 303) the artist Louise Nevelson has combined found materials to create a sculpture. What is this process called?

 

a.

eclectic borrowing

b.

relief sculpture

c.

assemblage

d.

trompe l'oeil

 

 

49.

Wood and stone carvings (p. 287) are examples of:

 

a.

relief sculpture.

b.

subtractive sculpture.

c.

assemblage.

d.

additive sculpture.

 

 

50.

When a sculpture is created by building up the form (p. 287) with a material such as clay, the process is called:

 

a.

relief sculpture.

b.

additive.

c.

cast sculpture.

d.

cire-perdue.

 

 

51.

One of the complex aspects of wood carving (p. 291) that a sculptor must pay attention to is:

 

a.

the expense of the wood.

b.

the wood's additive qualities.

c.

wood grain.

d.

All of the above.

 

 

52.

Allan Kaprow created "assemblages of events performed or perceived in more than one time and place." (p. 313) He called these:

 

a.

temporal phenomena.

b.

multiplicitous situations.

c.

happenings.

d.

None of the above.

 

 

53.

Pliable clay is made to hold its form permanently (p. 296) through the process of:

 

a.

subjecting it to high pressure.

b.

casting it in bronze.

c.

firing it.

d.

soaking it.

 

 

54.

A sculptural space that you can actually enter (p. 290) is referred to as:

 

a.

an environment.

b.

a tableau.

c.

an earthwork.

d.

None of the above.

 

 

55.

How does "assemblage" primarily differ from other sculptural processes?

 

a.

it is more dynamic

b.

it is an older process

c.

it utilizes "found" objects

d.

it utilizes the "lost-wax" technique

 

 

56.

The sculptural material most commonly associated with "modeling" or additive processes is:

 

a.

metal.

b.

clay.

c.

wood.

d.

found objects.

 

 

57.

How is performance art different from traditional sculpture?

 

a.

the artist often uses his/her own body in the execution of the piece

b.

there is typically no object to be bought or sold

c.

it utilizes aspects of theater, dance, and music

d.

All of the above.

 

 

58.

The material most often associated with the process of "casting" is:

 

a.

clay.

b.

steel.

c.

wood.

d.

bronze.

 

 

59.

Greek figurative sculpture was greatly influenced by Egyptian sculpture (p. 292). What did the Greeks add?

 

a.

greater skill

b.

the representation of garments

c.

naturalism

d.

authenticity

 

 

60.

By the late fourteenth century, the African kingdom of Benin had developed tremendous refinement (p. 298) in the art of:

 

a.

wood carving.

b.

iron casting.

c.

brass casting.

d.

stone carving.

 

 

61.

A work in which weft yarns of several different colors are manipulated to make a design is called:

 

a.

weaving

b.

embroidery

c.

collage

d.

afghan

 

 

62.

Backs in Landscape is by an artist who helped transform the craft medium of fiber into a fine art. The artist is:

 

a.

Dale Chihuly.

b.

Clyde Connell.

c.

David Hammons.

d.

Magdalena Abakanowicz.

 

 

63.

The textile design by Anni Albers (fig. 434; p. 336) was inspired by which source?

 

a.

Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis

b.

Wolfgang von Goethe's Metamorphosis of Plants

c.

the angularity of Bauhaus architecture

d.

a spontaneous arrangement of leaves she observed under a tree

 

 

64.

This artist created a functional salt cellar of gold and enamel depicting the gods Neptune and Tellus:

 

a.

Benvenuto Cellini.

b.

the Oxus artist.

c.

Susan Ewing.

d.

Antoni Gaudi.

 

 

65.

The Bent-Corner Chest is carved from cedar, a wood that is native to which region and favored by Native American artists there?

 

a.

the Northwest American coast

b.

the American Midwest

c.

the Northeast

d.

the Southwest

 

 

66.

The Japanese Tea Ceremony is a ritual that encourages the adherent to "leave the concerns of the daily world behind and enter a timeless world of ease, harmony, and mutual respect." Which of these ceramic pieces would be used in such a practice?

 

a.

Euthymides' Revelers

b.

Hon'ami Koetsu's Amagumo

c.

Martinez's Jar

d.

Voulkos' X-Neck

 

 

67.

As a thrown ceramic vessel, Rose Cabat's Onion Feelie, is unique because:

 

a.

of its color and shape.

b.

of its limited functionality.

c.

it is shaped like a garden vegetable or gourd.

d.

because it is symmetrical.

 

 

68.

Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party is a "feminist" art work that:

 

a.

utilizes so-called "women's work" and collaboration to pay homage to great women in human history.

b.

is based in traditional ceramic production.

c.

explored the artistic possibilities offered by traditional craft media and collaborative art processes.

d.

a & c

 

 

69.

The technique of sewing buttons on to linen, used by Marilyn Lanfear in Aunt Billie, is most closely related to which of these traditional techniques?

 

a.

oil painting

b.

mosaic

c.

fresco painting

d.

lithography

 

 

70.

What technique was used in creating Tutankhamun Hunting Ostriches from His Chariot?

 

a.

casting

b.

repousse and embossing

c.

carving

d.

modeling

 

 

71.

Hon'ami Koetsu's Amagumo tea bowl (p. 322) was perfectly made to fit the hand and was made in the early seventeenth century at one of the "Six Ancient Kilns," the traditional centers of _______ ceramics in Japan.

 

a.

wood-fired

b.

raku

c.

thrown

d.

anagama

 

 

72.

Objects formed out of clay and then hardened by firing (p. 322) are referred to as:

 

a.

Wedgwood.

b.

export porcelain.

c.

amphoras.

d.

ceramics.

 

 

73.

Native Americans used a traditional method for producing pots (p. 323) that did not involve the potter's wheel. What was it?

 

a.

slab construction

b.

subtractive modeling

c.

coil building

d.

cire-perdue

 

 

74.

All fiber arts evolved from one traditional process (p. 332) called:

 

a.

weaving.

b.

tapestry.

c.

embroidery.

d.

None of the above.

 

 

75.

Originally, when an artist worked in "the crafts" (p. 321), it meant that they:

 

a.

worked in bronze.

b.

created production pieces in a factory.

c.

worked in clay exclusively.

d.

produced functional objects.

 

 

76.

Most ceramic objects are created (p. 322) by one of three methods:

 

a.

additive, subtractive, and assemblage.

b.

slab construction, coiling, and throwing.

c.

firing, casting, and fusing.

d.

None of the above.

 

 

77.

The city of Chamba, India is famous for its embroidered muslin textiles (p. 333) called:

 

a.

mudras.

b.

anagama.

c.

wefts.

d.

rumals.

 

 

78.

Another word for a wood-firing kiln, which was a traditional Japanese invention and first used in the U.S. in 1976, is __________.

 

a.

ukiyo-e

b.

anagama

c.

alla prima

d.

oingo boingo

 

 

79.

When and where was porcelain developed?

 

a.

in 15th century Italy

b.

in 20th century America

c.

during the T'ang Dynasty in China

d.

in 12th century Japan

 

 

80.

We can trace the earliest distinction between the crafts and fine arts to:

 

a.

the classical period in Greece and the seemingly playful rivalries between competing makers of amphoras.

b.

Joseph Wedgwood, who in 1759 began manufacturing both cheap earthenware table settings and elegant hand-made luxury items.

c.

Japanese anagama-fired tea bowls made in the early 17th century.

d.

Egyptian pottery produced over 4000 years ago.

 

 

81.

Stained glass was first developed:

 

a.

in the 15th century by Leonardo DaVinci.

b.

in the 20th century by Piet Mondrian.

c.

in the 12th century, commissioned by Abbot Suger for Saint-Denis.

d.

in the 19th century by Edgar Degas.

 

 

82.

Gold has always been a popular art medium because:

 

a.

it is malleable and easy to work.

b.

it doesn't corrode.

c.

it occurs in an almost pure state.

d.

all of the above.

 

 

83.

It is thought that the sloping sides of the pyramids in Egypt were intended to mimic:

 

a.

the sands of the Sahara.

b.

the rays of the sun.

c.

the orb of Isis.

d.

the eyes of Akhenhaten.

 

 

84.

The Pont du Gard, in Nîmes, France, is an excellent example of a(n) _______ method of construction.

 

a.

load-bearing

b.

skeleton-and-skin

c.

balloon frame

d.

arch

 

 

85.

Notre Dame Cathedral, in Paris, is an example of _______ architecture.

 

a.

Gothic

b.

Romanesque

c.

basilica

d.

post-and-lintel

 

 

86.

Robie House is a typical work by the architect:

 

a.

Mies van der Rohe.

b.

William Morris.

c.

Frank Lloyd Wright.

d.

Eero Saarinen.

 

 

87.

The Seagram Building, designed Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, is an example of the International Style, a type of architecture marked by:

 

a.

rigid lines.

b.

integration with topography.

c.

austere geometric simplicity.

d.

mass and volume.

 

 

88.

Johnson and Burgee's University of Houston, College of Architecture is said to be a postmodern building because it:

 

a.

employs Louis Sullivan's "form follows function" maxim.

b.

follows the modernist mantra, "form over function."

c.

borrows from many different styles and time periods to create a kind of "history of Western architecture."

d.

uses post-and-lintel architecture.

 

 

89.

Thomas Coram's View of Mulberry House and Street displays architecture that is a good example of:

 

a.

postmodern architecture.

b.

architecture conforming to its local environment and available technology.

c.

neo-Classical architecture.

d.

architecture that defies its local environment and available technology.

 

 

90.

St. Sernin and Amiens Cathedral drew their inspiration from architecture that had been built some 1000 years prior. They are called ____________cathedrals.

 

a.

Gothic

b.

Roman

c.

Romanesque

d.

Byzantine

 

 

91.

Which of these previous architectural styles does Emilio Ambasz's ACROS building most resemble?

 

a.

Gothic cathedrals

b.

Mesopotamian ziggurats

c.

Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie House

d.

Egyptian pyramids

 

 

92.

This building, designed by Tom Wills-Wright, was recently built in ___________, which is one of the world's present hot-spots for extravagant and monumental architecture.

 

a.

New York City

b.

London

c.

Hong Kong

d.

Dubai

 

 

93.

Louis Sullivan utilized this type of construction in the late 19th century in Chicago to build increasingly tall buildings.

 

a.

load bearing

b.

cast iron

c.

steel and glass curtain

d.

steel and reinforced concrete

 

 

94.

The Seagram Building, designed by Philip Johnson and Mies van der Rohe is a perfect example of ___________ in architecture.

 

a.

the International Style

b.

the Prairie Style

c.

Bauhaus style

d.

postmodernism

 

 

95.

The Anasazi cliffside caves at Mesa Verde (p. 350) show the roofs of two _______, which are the underground space for ceremonial life.

 

a.

ziggurats

b.

kivas

c.

sipapu

d.

architraves

 

 

96.

What building method was used for the construction of the Egyptian pyramids (p. 348)?

 

a.

load bearing

b.

truss

c.

post and lintel

d.

skeleton and skin

 

 

97.

The "look" of our buildings and communities (p. 348) depends on two different factors and their interrelation. What are those factors?

 

a.

tastes and materials

b.

design and construction

c.

topography and technology

d.

architects and designers

 

 

98.

The Romans created larger interior spaces in architecture than the Greeks (p. 354) because:

 

a.

they were able to use stronger stone for the post-and-lintel constructions.

b.

they combined the use of the arch with the use of concrete.

c.

they understood the limits of tensile strength.

d.

they used skeleton and steel construction.

 

 

99.

In the Gothic period, when Notre Dame de Paris was built (p. 358), architects preferred to use:

 

a.

pointed arches.

b.

barrel vaults.

c.

solid wall construction.

d.

domes.

 

 

100.

How did Gothic architects compensate for the lateral thrust (p. 358) of the cathedrals?

 

a.

by staggering systems of lintels

b.

with flying buttresses

c.

by filling in walls and windows

d.

with concrete

 

 

101.

The Romans perfected which architectural innovation (p. 354) by the end of the first century bce?

 

a.

post and lintel

b.

the amphitheater

c.

the arch

d.

the geodesic dome

 

 

102.

Which work was the centerpiece for the 1889 Paris Exposition (p. 359)?

 

a.

the Crystal Palace

b.

the Parthenon

c.

the Eiffel Tower

d.

the Pantheon

 

 

103.

Frederick Olmsted conceived of a residential community outside the city, but within commuting distance (p. 376), that became an integral part of American life. What was it?

 

a.

the beltway

b.

the city park

c.

the suburb

d.

the apartment complex

 

 

104.

Frank Lloyd Wright designed several houses (p. 366) that were based on the "vastness of the western landscape" and were "of the land, not just on the land." What did he call this style of house?

 

a.

the Landscape House

b.

the Craftsman-style House

c.

the machine for living

d.

the Prairie House

 

 

105.

Which of these best describes Frank Gehry's design process?

 

a.

it is very controlled, almost rigid

b.

he borrows heavily from previous architectural styles

c.

it is fluid and experimental

d.

all of the above

 

 

106.

Which of these is not a basic principle of "green architecture"?

 

a.

use of recycled, reusable, and sustainable materials

b.

integration and compatibility with the natural environment

c.

smaller buildings

d.

buildings that make maximum use of energy supplies like coal and nuclear power

 

 

107.

Historically, architectural styles and building techniques have been dependent upon:

 

a.

the whims of academically-trained aesthetes.

b.

the ability of local artisans to transport massive building materials over great distances.

c.

environment (the lay of the land and climate) and technology (available materials and the ability to manipulate them).

d.

theoretical fluctuations between "form follows function" and "form over function."

 

 

108.

When and why were the Pyramids at Giza built?

 

a.

roughly 4000 years ago as economic, administrative, and religious centers in Sumerian cities

b.

roughly 3000 years ago to be used as residences

c.

roughly 3000 years ago to be used as fortresses

d.

roughly 4500 years ago to be used as tombs and monuments for deceased pharaohs

 

 

109.

When and where was the use of the arch in Western architecture perfected?

 

a.

in Greece around 500 B.C.E.

b.

in Egypt around 1000 B.C.E.

c.

in Rome around the 1st century B.C.E.

d.

in Rome around 410 C.E.

 

 

Course Information

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